2022-04-10
2022-04-14

## Information Theory

Information theory is a field of study concerned with quantifying information for communication. It is a subfield of mathematics and is concerned with topics like data compression and the limits of signal processing. The field was proposed and developed by Claude Shannon while working at the US telephone company Bell Labs. Information theory is concerned with representing data in a compact fashion (a task known as data compression or source coding), as well as with transmitting and storing it in a way that is robust to errors (a task known as error correction or channel coding).

A foundational concept of information is the quantification of the amount of information in things like events, random variables, and distributions. Quantifying the amount of information requires the use of probabilities, hence the relationship of information theory to probability. Measurements of information are widely used in artificial intelligence and machine learning, such as in the construction of decision trees and the optimization of classifier models. As such, there is an important relationship between information theory and machine learning and a practitioner must be familiar with some of the basic concepts from the field.

In this tutorial, you will discover some important concepts of information theory used in machine learning.

## Calculating information for an event

Quantifying information is the foundation of the field of information theory. The intuition behind quantifying information is the idea of measuring how much surprise there is in an event. Those events that are rare (low probability) are more surprising and therefore have more information than those events that are common (high probability).

• Low Probability Event: High Information (surprising).
• High Probability Event: Low Information (unsurprising).

The basic intuition behind information theory is that learning that an unlikely event has occurred is more informative than learning that a likely event has occurred. Rare events are more uncertain or more surprising and require more information to represent them than common events.

We can calculate the amount of information there is in an event using the probability of the event. This is called “Shannon information,” “self-information,” or simply the “information,” and can be calculated for a discrete event x as follows:

• information(x) = -log( p(x) )

Where log() is the base-2 logarithm and p(x) is the probability of the event x. The choice of the base-2 logarithm means that the units of the information measured are in bits (binary digits). This can be directly interpreted in the information processing sense as the number of bits required to represent the event.

The calculation of information is often written as h(); for example:

• h(x) = -log( p(x) )

The negative sign ensures that the result is always positive or zero. Information will be zero when the probability of an event is 1.0 or a certainty, e.g. there is no surprise.

Let’s make this concrete with some examples. Consider a flip of a single fair coin. The probability of heads (and tails) is 0.5. We can calculate the information for flipping a head in Python using the log2() function.

# calculate the information for a coin flip
from math import log2
# probability of the event
p = 0.5
# calculate information for event
h = -log2(p)
# print the result
print('p(x)=%.3f, information: %.3f bits' % (p, h))


Running the example prints the probability of the event as 50% and the information content for the event as 1 bit.

p(x)=0.500, information: 1.000 bits


If the same coin was flipped n times, then the information for this sequence of flips would be n bits. If the coin was not fair and the probability of a head was instead 10% (0.1), then the event would be rarer and would require more than 3 bits of information.

p(x)=0.100, information: 3.322 bits


We can also explore the information in a single roll of a fair six-sided dice, e.g. the information in rolling a 6. We know the probability of rolling any number is 1/6, which is a smaller number than 1/2 for a coin flip, therefore we would expect more surprise or a larger amount of information.

# calculate the information for a dice roll
from math import log2
# probability of the event
p = 1.0 / 6.0
# calculate information for event
h = -log2(p)
# print the result
print('p(x)=%.3f, information: %.3f bits' % (p, h))


Running the example, we can see that our intuition is correct and that indeed, there are more than 2.5 bits of information in a single roll of a fair die.

p(x)=0.167, information: 2.585 bits


Other logarithms can be used instead of the base-2. For example, it is also common to use the natural logarithm that uses base-e (Euler’s number) in calculating the information, in which case the units are referred to as “nats.”

We can further develop the intuition that low probability events have more information. To make this clear, we can calculate the information for probabilities between 0 and 1 and plot the corresponding information for each. We can then create a plot of probability vs information. We would expect the plot to curve downward from low probabilities with high information to high probabilities with low information.

# compare probability vs information entropy
from math import log2
from matplotlib import pyplot
# list of probabilities
probs = [0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, 0.9, 1.0]
# calculate information
info = [-log2(p) for p in probs]
# plot probability vs information
pyplot.plot(probs, info, marker='.')
pyplot.title('Probability vs Information')
pyplot.xlabel('Probability')
pyplot.ylabel('Information')
pyplot.show()


Running the example creates the plot of probability vs information in bits. We can see the expected relationship where low probability events are more surprising and carry more information, and the complement of high probability events carries less information. We can also see that this relationship is not linear, it is in fact slightly sub-linear. This makes sense given the use of the log function. Probability vs Information

## Calculating entropy for a random variable

We can also quantify how much information there is in a random variable. For example, if we wanted to calculate the information for a random variable X with probability distribution p, this might be written as a function H(); for example:

• H(X)

In effect, calculating the information for a random variable is the same as calculating the information for the probability distribution of the events for the random variable. Calculating the information for a random variable is called “information entropy,” “Shannon entropy,” or simply “entropy“. It is related to the idea of entropy from physics by analogy, in that both are concerned with uncertainty. The intuition for entropy is that it is the average number of bits required to represent or transmit an event drawn from the probability distribution for the random variable.

Entropy can be calculated for a random variable X with k in K discrete states as follows:

• H(X) = -sum(each k in K p(k) * log(p(k)))

That is the negative of the sum of the probability of each event multiplied by the log of the probability of each event. Like information, the log() function uses base-2 and the units are bits. A natural logarithm can be used instead and the units will be nats. The lowest entropy is calculated for a random variable that has a single event with a probability of 1.0, a certainty. The largest entropy for a random variable will be if all events are equally likely.

We can consider a roll of a fair die and calculate the entropy for the variable. Each outcome has the same probability of 1/6, therefore it is a uniform probability distribution. We therefore would expect the average information to be the same information for a single event calculated in the previous section.

# calculate the entropy for a dice roll
from math import log2
# the number of events
n = 6
# probability of one event
p = 1.0 /n
# calculate entropy
entropy = -sum([p * log2(p) for _ in range(n)])
# print the result
print('entropy: %.3f bits' % entropy)


Running the example calculates the entropy as more than 2.5 bits, which is the same as the information for a single outcome. This makes sense, as the average information is the same as the lower bound on information as all outcomes are equally likely.

entropy: 2.585 bits


If we know the probability for each event, we can use the entropy() SciPy function to calculate the entropy directly.

# calculate the entropy for a dice roll
from scipy.stats import entropy
# discrete probabilities
p = [1/6, 1/6, 1/6, 1/6, 1/6, 1/6]
# calculate entropy
e = entropy(p, base=2)
# print the result
print('entropy: %.3f bits' % e)


Running the example reports the same result that we calculated manually.

entropy: 2.585 bits


We can further develop the intuition for the entropy of probability distributions. Recall that entropy is the number of bits required to represent a randomly drawn event from the distribution, e.g. an average event. We can explore this for a simple distribution with two events, like a coin flip, but explore different probabilities for these two events and calculate the entropy for each.

In the case where one event dominates, such as a skewed probability distribution, then there is less surprise and the distribution will have a lower entropy. In the case where no event dominates another, such as equal or approximately equal probability distribution, then we would expect larger or maximum entropy.

• Skewed Probability Distribution (unsurprising): Low entropy.
• Balanced Probability Distribution (surprising): High entropy.

More Entropy => More Uncertainty => Less Information => Less Certainty

http://www.sefidian.com/2021/09/06/shannon-entropy-and-its-properties/

If we transition from skewed to the equal probability of events in the distribution we would expect entropy to start low and increase, specifically from the lowest entropy of 0.0 for events with impossibility/certainty (probability of 0 and 1 respectively) to the largest entropy of 1.0 for events with equal probability.

The example below implements this, creating each probability distribution in this transition, calculating the entropy for each, and plotting the result.

# compare probability distributions vs entropy
from math import log2
from matplotlib import pyplot

# calculate entropy
def entropy(events, ets=1e-15):
return -sum([p * log2(p + ets) for p in events])

# define probabilities
probs = [0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5]
# create probability distribution
dists = [[p, 1.0 - p] for p in probs]
# calculate entropy for each distribution
ents = [entropy(d) for d in dists]
# plot probability distribution vs entropy
pyplot.plot(probs, ents, marker='.')
pyplot.title('Probability Distribution vs Entropy')
pyplot.xticks(probs, [str(d) for d in dists])
pyplot.xlabel('Probability Distribution')
pyplot.ylabel('Entropy (bits)')
pyplot.show()


Running the example creates the 6 probability distributions with [0,1] probability through to [0.5,0.5] probabilities. As expected, we can see that as the distribution of events changes from skewed to balanced, the entropy increases from minimal to maximum values. That is, if the average event drawn from a probability distribution is not surprising we get a lower entropy, whereas if it is surprising, we get a larger entropy.

We can see that the transition is not linear, that it is super linear. We can also see that this curve is symmetrical if we continued the transition to [0.6, 0.4] and onward to [1.0, 0.0] for the two events, forming an inverted parabola-shape. Note we had to add a tiny value to the probability when calculating the entropy to avoid calculating the log of a zero value, which would result in infinity on not a number. Probability Distribution vs Entropy

Calculating the entropy for a random variable provides the basis for other measures such as mutual information (information gain). Entropy provides the basis for calculating the difference between two probability distributions with cross-entropy and the KL-divergence.

## Kullback-Leibler Divergence

It is often desirable to quantify the difference between probability distributions for a given random variable. This occurs frequently in machine learning, when we may be interested in calculating the difference between an actual and observed probability distribution. This can be achieved using techniques from information theory, such as the Kullback-Leibler Divergence (KL divergence), or relative entropy, and the Jensen-Shannon Divergence which provides a normalized and symmetrical version of the KL divergence. These scoring methods can be used as shortcuts in the calculation of other widely used methods, such as mutual information for feature selection prior to modeling, and cross-entropy used as a loss function for many different classifier models.

### Statistical Distance

There are many situations where we may want to compare two probability distributions. Specifically, we may have a single random variable and two different probability distributions for the variable, such as a true distribution and an approximation of that distribution. In situations like this, it can be useful to quantify the difference between the distributions. Generally, this is referred to as the problem of calculating the statistical distance between two statistical objects, e.g. probability distributions. One approach is to calculate a distance measure between the two distributions. This can be challenging as it can be difficult to interpret the measure.

Instead, it is more common to calculate a divergence between two probability distributions. A divergence is like a measure but is not symmetrical. This means that divergence is a scoring of how one distribution differs from another, where calculating the divergence for distributions P and Q would give a different score from Q and P.

Divergence scores are an important foundation for many different calculations in information theory and more generally in machine learning. For example, they provide shortcuts for calculating scores such as mutual information (information gain) and cross-entropy used as a loss function for classification models. Divergence scores are also used directly as tools for understanding complex modeling problems, such as approximating a target probability distribution when optimizing generative adversarial network (GAN) models. Two commonly used divergence scores from information theory are Kullback-Leibler Divergence and Jensen-Shannon Divergence. We will take a closer look at both of these scores in the following sections.

## Kullback-Leibler Divergence

The Kullback-Leibler Divergence score, or KL divergence score, quantifies how much one probability distribution differs from another probability distribution.

The KL divergence between two distributions Q and P is often stated using the following notation:

• KL(P || Q)

Where the “||” operator indicates “divergence” or P’s divergence from Q.

KL divergence can be calculated as the negative sum of the probability of each event in P multiplied by the log of the probability of the event in Q over the probability of the event in P.

The value within the sum is the divergence for a given event.

This is the same as the positive sum of the probability of each event in P multiplied by the log of the probability of the event in P over the probability of the event in Q (e.g. the terms in the fraction are flipped). This is the more common implementation used in practice.

The intuition for the KL divergence score is that when the probability for an event from P is large, but the probability for the same event in Q is small, there is a large divergence. When the probability from P is small and the probability from Q is large, there is also a large divergence, but not as large as the first case. It can be used to measure the divergence between discrete and continuous probability distributions, where in the latter case the integral of the events is calculated instead of the sum of the probabilities of the discrete events.

The log can be base-2 to give units in “bits,” or the natural logarithm base-e with units in “nats.” When the score is 0, it suggests that both distributions are identical, otherwise the score is positive.

Importantly, the KL divergence score is not symmetrical, for example:

• KL(P || Q) != KL(Q || P)

It is named for the two authors of the method Solomon Kullback and Richard Leibler, and is sometimes referred to as “relative entropy.”

If we are attempting to approximate an unknown probability distribution, then the target probability distribution from data is P and Q is our approximation of the distribution. In this case, the KL divergence summarizes the number of additional bits (i.e. calculated with the base-2 logarithm) required to represent an event from the random variable. The better our approximation, the less additional information is required.

Consider a random variable with three events as different colors. We may have two different probability distributions for this variable.

# plot of distributions
from matplotlib import pyplot
# define distributions
events = ['red', 'green', 'blue']
p = [0.10, 0.40, 0.50]
q = [0.80, 0.15, 0.05]
print('P=%.3f Q=%.3f' % (sum(p), sum(q)))
# plot first distribution
pyplot.subplot(2,1,1)
pyplot.bar(events, p)
# plot second distribution
pyplot.subplot(2,1,2)
pyplot.bar(events, q)
# show the plot
pyplot.show()


Running the example creates a histogram for each probability distribution, allowing the probabilities for each event to be directly compared. We can see that indeed the distributions are different. Histogram of two different probability distributions for the same random variable

Next, we can develop a function to calculate the KL divergence between the two distributions. We will use log base-2 to ensure the result has units in bits. We can then use this function to calculate the KL divergence of P from Q, as well as the reverse, Q from P.

# example of calculating the kl divergence between two mass functions
from math import log2

# calculate the kl divergence
def kl_divergence(p, q):
return sum(p[i] * log2(p[i]/q[i]) for i in range(len(p)))

# define distributions
p = [0.10, 0.40, 0.50]
q = [0.80, 0.15, 0.05]
# calculate (P || Q)
kl_pq = kl_divergence(p, q)
print('KL(P || Q): %.3f bits' % kl_pq)
# calculate (Q || P)
kl_qp = kl_divergence(q, p)
print('KL(Q || P): %.3f bits' % kl_qp)


Running the example first calculates the divergence of P from Q as just under 2 bits, then Q from P as just over 2 bits. This is intuitive if we consider P has large probabilities when Q is small, giving P less divergence than Q from P as Q has more small probabilities when P has large probabilities. There is more divergence in this second case.

KL(P || Q): 1.927 bits
KL(Q || P): 2.022 bits


If we change log2() to the natural logarithm log() function, the result is in nats, as follows:

KL(P || Q): 1.336 nats
KL(Q || P): 1.401 nats


The SciPy library provides the kl_div() function for calculating the KL divergence, although with a different definition as defined here. It also provides the rel_entr() function for calculating the relative entropy, which matches the definition of KL divergence here. This is odd as “relative entropy” is often used as a synonym for “KL divergence.” Nevertheless, we can calculate the KL divergence using the rel_entr() SciPy function and confirm that our manual calculation is correct.

The rel_entr() function takes lists of probabilities across all events from each probability distribution as arguments and returns a list of divergences for each event. These can be summed to give the KL divergence. The calculation uses the natural logarithm instead of log base-2 so the units are in nats instead of bits.

# example of calculating the kl divergence (relative entropy) with scipy
from scipy.special import rel_entr
# define distributions
p = [0.10, 0.40, 0.50]
q = [0.80, 0.15, 0.05]
# calculate (P || Q)
kl_pq = rel_entr(p, q)
print('KL(P || Q): %.3f nats' % sum(kl_pq))
# calculate (Q || P)
kl_qp = rel_entr(q, p)
print('KL(Q || P): %.3f nats' % sum(kl_qp))


Running the example, we can see that the calculated divergences match our manual calculation of about 1.3 nats and about 1.4 nats for KL(P || Q) and KL(Q || P) respectively.

KL(P || Q): 1.336 nats
KL(Q || P): 1.401 nats


## Jensen-Shannon Divergence

The Jensen-Shannon divergence, or JS divergence for short, is another way to quantify the difference (or similarity) between two probability distributions. It uses the KL divergence to calculate a normalized score that is symmetrical. This means that the divergence of P from Q is the same as Q from P, or stated formally:

• JS(P || Q) == JS(Q || P)

The JS divergence can be calculated as follows:

• JS(P || Q) = 1/2 * KL(P || M) + 1/2 * KL(Q || M)

Where M is calculated as:

• M = 1/2 * (P + Q)

And KL() is calculated as the KL divergence described in the previous section. It is more useful as a measure as it provides a smoothed and normalized version of KL divergence, with scores between 0 (identical) and 1 (maximally different), when using the base-2 logarithm.

The square root of the score gives a quantity referred to as the Jensen-Shannon distance or JS distance for short. We can make the JS divergence concrete with a worked example. First, we can define a function to calculate the JS divergence that uses the kl_divergence() function prepared in the previous section.

# calculate the kl divergence
def kl_divergence(p, q):
return sum(p[i] * log2(p[i]/q[i]) for i in range(len(p)))

# calculate the js divergence
def js_divergence(p, q):
m = 0.5 * (p + q)
return 0.5 * kl_divergence(p, m) + 0.5 * kl_divergence(q, m)


We can then test this function using the same probability distributions used in the previous section. First, we will calculate the JS divergence score for the distributions, then calculate the square root of the score to give the JS distance between the distributions. For example:

...
# calculate JS(P || Q)
js_pq = js_divergence(p, q)
print('JS(P || Q) divergence: %.3f bits' % js_pq)
print('JS(P || Q) distance: %.3f' % sqrt(js_pq))


This can then be repeated for the reverse case to show that the divergence is symmetrical, unlike the KL divergence.

...
# calculate JS(Q || P)
js_qp = js_divergence(q, p)
print('JS(Q || P) divergence: %.3f bits' % js_qp)
print('JS(Q || P) distance: %.3f' % sqrt(js_qp))


Tying this together, the complete example of calculating the JS divergence and JS distance is listed below.

# example of calculating the js divergence between two mass functions
from math import log2
from math import sqrt
from numpy import asarray

# calculate the kl divergence
def kl_divergence(p, q):
return sum(p[i] * log2(p[i]/q[i]) for i in range(len(p)))

# calculate the js divergence
def js_divergence(p, q):
m = 0.5 * (p + q)
return 0.5 * kl_divergence(p, m) + 0.5 * kl_divergence(q, m)

# define distributions
p = asarray([0.10, 0.40, 0.50])
q = asarray([0.80, 0.15, 0.05])
# calculate JS(P || Q)
js_pq = js_divergence(p, q)
print('JS(P || Q) divergence: %.3f bits' % js_pq)
print('JS(P || Q) distance: %.3f' % sqrt(js_pq))
# calculate JS(Q || P)
js_qp = js_divergence(q, p)
print('JS(Q || P) divergence: %.3f bits' % js_qp)
print('JS(Q || P) distance: %.3f' % sqrt(js_qp))


Running the example shows that the JS divergence between the distributions is about 0.4 bits and that the distance is about 0.6. We can see that the calculation is symmetrical, giving the same score and distance measure for JS(P || Q) and JS(Q || P).

JS(P || Q) divergence: 0.420 bits
JS(P || Q) distance: 0.648
JS(Q || P) divergence: 0.420 bits
JS(Q || P) distance: 0.648


The SciPy library provides an implementation of the JS distance via the jensenshannon() function. It takes arrays of probabilities across all events from each probability distribution as arguments and returns the JS distance score, not a divergence score. We can use this function to confirm our manual calculation of the JS distance.

# calculate the jensen-shannon distance metric
from scipy.spatial.distance import jensenshannon
from numpy import asarray
# define distributions
p = asarray([0.10, 0.40, 0.50])
q = asarray([0.80, 0.15, 0.05])
# calculate JS(P || Q)
js_pq = jensenshannon(p, q, base=2)
print('JS(P || Q) Distance: %.3f' % js_pq)
# calculate JS(Q || P)
js_qp = jensenshannon(q, p, base=2)
print('JS(Q || P) Distance: %.3f' % js_qp)


Running the example, we can confirm the distance score matches our manual calculation of 0.648, and that the distance calculation is symmetrical as expected.

JS(P || Q) Distance: 0.648
JS(Q || P) Distance: 0.648


## Information Gain

Information Gain, or IG for short, measures the reduction in entropy or surprise by splitting a dataset according to a given value of a random variable. A larger information gain suggests a lower entropy group or groups of samples and hence less surprise.

Recall that information quantifies how surprising an event is in bits. Lower probability events have more information, higher probability events have less information. Entropy quantifies how much information there is in a random variable, or more specifically its probability distribution. A skewed distribution has low entropy, whereas a distribution where events have equal probability has a larger entropy.

In information theory, we like to describe the “surprise” of an event. Low probability events are more surprising and therefore have a larger amount of information. Whereas probability distributions where the events are equally likely are more surprising and have larger entropy.

Now, let’s consider the entropy of a dataset. We can think about the entropy of a dataset in terms of the probability distribution of observations in the dataset belonging to one class or another, e.g. two classes in the case of a binary classification dataset. One interpretation of entropy from information theory is that it specifies the minimum number of bits of information needed to encode the classification of an arbitrary member of S (i.e., a member of S drawn at random with uniform probability).

For example, in a binary classification problem (two classes), we can calculate the entropy of a dataset as follows:

• Entropy = -(p(0) * log(P(0)) + p(1) * log(P(1)))

A dataset with a 50/50 split of samples for the two classes would have a maximum entropy (maximum surprise) of 1 bit, whereas an imbalanced dataset with a split of 10/90 would have a smaller entropy as there would be less surprise for a randomly drawn example from the dataset.

We can demonstrate this with an example of calculating the entropy for this imbalanced dataset in Python.

# calculate the entropy for a dataset
from math import log2
# proportion of examples in each class
class0 = 10/100
class1 = 90/100
# calculate entropy
entropy = -(class0 * log2(class0) + class1 * log2(class1))
# print the result
print('entropy: %.3f bits' % entropy)


Running the example, we can see that the entropy of the dataset for binary classification is less than 1 bit. That is, less than one bit of information is required to encode the class label for an arbitrary example from the dataset.

entropy: 0.469 bits


In this way, entropy can be used as a calculation of the purity of a dataset, e.g. how balanced the distribution of classes happens to be. An entropy of 0 bits indicates a dataset containing one class; an entropy of 1 or more bits suggests maximum entropy for a balanced dataset (depending on the number of classes), with values in between indicating levels between these extremes.

Information gain provides a way to use entropy to calculate how a change to the dataset impacts the purity of the dataset, e.g. the distribution of classes. A smaller entropy suggests more purity or less surprise. Information gain, is simply the expected reduction in entropy caused by partitioning the examples according to this attribute.

For example, we may wish to evaluate the impact on purity by splitting a dataset S by a random variable a with a range of values.

This can be calculated as follows:

• IG(S, a) = H(S) – H(S | a)

Where IG(S, a) is the information for the dataset S for the random variable aH(S) is the entropy for the dataset before any change (described above) and H(S | a) is the conditional entropy for the dataset given the variable a. This calculation describes the gain in dataset S for the variable a. It is the number of bits saved when transforming the dataset.

The conditional entropy can be calculated by splitting the dataset into groups for each observed value of a and calculating the sum of the ratio of examples in each group out of the entire dataset multiplied by the entropy of each group.

• H(S | a) = sum v in a Sa(v)/S * H(Sa(v))

Where Sa(v)/S is the ratio of the number of examples in the dataset with variable a has the value v, and H(Sa(v)) is the entropy of a group of samples where variable a has the value v. This might sound a little confusing. We can make the calculation of information gain concrete with a worked example.

## Example of calculating information gain

In this section, we will make the calculation of information gain concrete with a worked example.

We can define a function to calculate the entropy of a group of samples based on the ratio of samples that belong to class 0 and class 1.

Consider a dataset with 20 examples, 13 for class 0 and 7 for class 1. We can calculate the entropy for this dataset, which will have less than 1 bit. Assume that one of the variables in the dataset has two unique values, say “value1” and “value2.” We are interested in calculating the information gain of this variable.

Let’s assume that if we split the dataset by value1, we have a group of eight samples, seven for class 0 and one for class 1. We can then calculate the entropy of this group of samples. Now, let’s assume that we split the dataset by value2; we have a group of 12 samples with six in each group. We would expect this group to have an entropy of 1. Finally, we can calculate the information gain for this variable based on the groups created for each value of the variable and the calculated entropy. The first variable resulted in a group of eight examples from the dataset, and the second group had the remaining 12 samples in the data set. Therefore, we have everything we need to calculate the information gain.

In this case, information gain can be calculated as:

• Entropy(Dataset) – (Count(Group1) / Count(Dataset) * Entropy(Group1) + Count(Group2) / Count(Dataset) * Entropy(Group2))

Or:

• Entropy(13/20, 7/20) – (8/20 * Entropy(7/8, 1/8) + 12/20 * Entropy(6/12, 6/12))

Tying this all together, the complete example is listed below.

# calculate the information gain
from math import log2

# calculate the entropy for the split in the dataset
def entropy(class0, class1):
return -(class0 * log2(class0) + class1 * log2(class1))

# split of the main dataset
class0 = 13 / 20
class1 = 7 / 20
# calculate entropy before the change
s_entropy = entropy(class0, class1)
print('Dataset Entropy: %.3f bits' % s_entropy)

# split 1 (split via value1)
s1_class0 = 7 / 8
s1_class1 = 1 / 8
# calculate the entropy of the first group
s1_entropy = entropy(s1_class0, s1_class1)
print('Group1 Entropy: %.3f bits' % s1_entropy)

# split 2  (split via value2)
s2_class0 = 6 / 12
s2_class1 = 6 / 12
# calculate the entropy of the second group
s2_entropy = entropy(s2_class0, s2_class1)
print('Group2 Entropy: %.3f bits' % s2_entropy)

# calculate the information gain
gain = s_entropy - (8/20 * s1_entropy + 12/20 * s2_entropy)
print('Information Gain: %.3f bits' % gain)


First, the entropy of the dataset is calculated at just under 1 bit. Then the entropy for the first and second groups are calculated at about 0.5 and 1 bits respectively. Finally, the information gain for the variable is calculated as 0.117 bits. That is, the gain to the dataset by splitting it via the chosen variable is 0.117 bits.

Dataset Entropy: 0.934 bits
Group1 Entropy: 0.544 bits
Group2 Entropy: 1.000 bits
Information Gain: 0.117 bits


## Applications of Information Gain in Machine Learning

Perhaps the most popular use of information gain in machine learning is in decision trees. An example is the Iterative Dichotomiser 3 algorithm, or ID3 for short, used to construct a decision tree. Information gain is precisely the measure used by ID3 to select the best attribute at each step in growing the tree. The information gain is calculated for each variable in the dataset. The variable that has the largest information gain is selected to split the dataset. Generally, a larger gain indicates a smaller entropy or less surprise. The process is then repeated on each created group, excluding the variable that was already chosen. This stops once a desired depth to the decision tree is reached or no more splits are possible.

Information gain can be used as a split criterion in most modern implementations of decision trees, such as the implementation of the Classification and Regression Tree (CART) algorithm in the scikit-learn Python machine learning library in the DecisionTreeClassifier class for classification. This can be achieved by setting the criterion argument to “entropy” when configuring the model; for example:

# example of a decision tree trained with information gain
from sklearn.tree import DecisionTreeClassifier
model = sklearn.tree.DecisionTreeClassifier(criterion='entropy')
...


Information gain can also be used for feature selection prior to modeling. It involves calculating the information gain between the target variable and each input variable in the training dataset. The Weka machine learning workbench provides an implementation of information gain for feature selection via the InfoGainAttributeEval class.

In this context of feature selection, information gain may be referred to as “mutual information” and calculate the statistical dependence between two variables. An example of using information gain (mutual information) for feature selection is the mutual_info_classif() scikit-learn function.

## Mutual Information

Mutual information is calculated between two variables and measures the reduction in uncertainty for one variable given a known value of the other variable. It measures the amount of information one can obtain from one random variable given another.

The mutual information between two random variables X and Y can be stated formally as follows:

• I(X ; Y) = H(X) – H(X | Y)

Where I(X ; Y) is the mutual information for X and YH(X) is the entropy for X, and H(X | Y) is the conditional entropy for X given Y. The result has units of bits. Mutual information is a measure of dependence or “mutual dependence” between two random variables. As such, the measure is symmetrical, meaning that I(X ; Y) = I(Y ; X). It measures the average reduction in uncertainty about x that results from learning the value of y; or vice versa, the average amount of information that x conveys about y.

The mutual information can also be calculated as the KL divergence between the joint probability distribution and the product of the marginal probabilities for each variable.

If the variables are not independent, we can gain some idea of whether they are ‘close’ to being independent by considering the Kullback-Leibler divergence between the joint distribution and the product of the marginals […] which is called the mutual information between the variables

Page 57, Pattern Recognition and Machine Learning, 2006.

This can be stated formally as follows:

• I(X ; Y) = KL(p(X, Y) || p(X) * p(Y))

Mutual information is always larger than or equal to zero, where the larger the value, the greater the relationship between the two variables. If the calculated result is zero, then the variables are independent. Mutual information is often used as a general form of a correlation coefficient, e.g. a measure of the dependence between random variables. It is also used as an aspect in some machine learning algorithms. A common example is the Independent Component Analysis, or ICA for short, which provides a projection of statistically independent components of a dataset.

## Relation between Information Gain and Mutual Information

Mutual Information and Information Gain are the same things, although the context or usage of the measure often gives rise to different names.

For example:

• Effect of Transforms to a Dataset (decision trees): Information Gain.
• Dependence Between Variables (feature selection): Mutual Information.

Notice the similarity in the way that the mutual information is calculated and the way that information gain is calculated; they are equivalent:

• I(X ; Y) = H(X) – H(X | Y)

and

• IG(S, a) = H(S) – H(S | a)

As such, mutual information is sometimes used as a synonym for information gain. Technically, they calculate the same quantity if applied to the same data. We can understand the relationship between the two as the more the difference in the joint and marginal probability distributions (mutual information), the larger the gain in information (information gain).

## Cross-Entropy

Cross-entropy is commonly used in machine learning as a loss function. Cross-entropy is a measure from the field of information theory, building upon entropy and generally calculating the difference between two probability distributions. It is closely related to but is different from KL divergence which calculates the relative entropy between two probability distributions, whereas cross-entropy can be thought to calculate the total entropy between the distributions.

Cross-entropy is also related to and often confused with logistic loss, called log loss. Although the two measures are derived from a different source, when used as loss functions for classification models, both measures calculate the same quantity and can be used interchangeably.

Cross-entropy is a measure of the difference between two probability distributions for a given random variable or set of events. You might recall that information quantifies the number of bits required to encode and transmit an event. Lower probability events have more information, higher probability events have less information.

In information theory, we like to describe the “surprise” of an event. An event is more surprising the less likely it is, meaning it contains more information.

• Higher Probability Event (unsurprising): Less information.

Information h(x) can be calculated for an event x, given the probability of the event P(x) as follows:

• h(x) = -log(P(x))

Entropy is the number of bits required to transmit a randomly selected event from a probability distribution. A skewed distribution has low entropy, whereas a distribution where events have equal probability has a larger entropy. A skewed probability distribution has less “surprise/uncertainty” and in turn a low entropy because likely events dominate. Balanced distributions are more surprising and turn have higher entropy because events are equally likely.

• Skewed Probability Distribution (unsurprising): Low entropy.
• Balanced Probability Distribution (surprising): High entropy.

Cross-entropy builds upon the idea of entropy from information theory and calculates the number of bits required to represent or transmit an average event from one distribution compared to another distribution.

… the cross entropy is the average number of bits needed to encode data coming from a source with distribution p when we use model q …

— Page 57, Machine Learning: A Probabilistic Perspective, 2012.

The intuition for this definition comes if we consider a target or underlying probability distribution P and an approximation of the target distribution Q, then the cross-entropy of Q from P is the number of additional bits to represent an event using Q instead of P.

The cross-entropy between two probability distributions, such as Q from P, can be stated formally as:

• H(P, Q)

Where H() is the cross-entropy function, P may be the target distribution and Q is the approximation of the target distribution. Cross-entropy can be calculated using the probabilities of the events from P and Q, as follows:

• H(P, Q) = – sum x in X P(x) * log(Q(x))

Where P(x) is the probability of the event x in P, Q(x) is the probability of event x in Q and log is the base-2 logarithm, meaning that the results are in bits. If the base-e or natural logarithm is used instead, the result will have the units called nats. This calculation is for discrete probability distributions, although a similar calculation can be used for continuous probability distributions using the integral across the events instead of the sum. The result will be a positive number measured in bits and will be equal to the entropy of the distribution if the two probability distributions are identical.

Note: this notation looks a lot like the joint probability, or more specifically, the joint entropy between P and Q. This is misleading as we are scoring the difference between probability distributions with cross-entropy. Whereas, joint entropy is a different concept that uses the same notation and instead calculates the uncertainty across two (or more) random variables.

## Cross-Entropy Versus KL Divergence

Cross-entropy is not KL Divergence. Cross-entropy is related to divergence measures, such as the Kullback-Leibler, or KL, Divergence that quantifies how much one distribution differs from another. Specifically, the KL divergence measures a very similar quantity to cross-entropy. It measures the average number of extra bits required to represent a message with Q instead of P, not the total number of bits.

In other words, the KL divergence is the average number of extra bits needed to encode the data, due to the fact that we used distribution q to encode the data instead of the true distribution p.

— Page 58, Machine Learning: A Probabilistic Perspective, 2012.

As such, the KL divergence is often referred to as the “relative entropy.”

• Cross-Entropy: Average number of total bits to represent an event from Q instead of P.
• Relative Entropy (KL Divergence): Average number of extra bits to represent an event from Q instead of P.

We can calculate the cross-entropy by adding the entropy of the distribution plus the additional entropy calculated by the KL divergence. This is intuitive, given the definition of both calculations; for example:

• H(P, Q) = H(P) + KL(P || Q)

Where H(P, Q) is the cross-entropy of Q from P, H(P) is the entropy of P and KL(P || Q) is the divergence of Q from P.

Like KL divergence, cross-entropy is not symmetrical, meaning that:

• H(P, Q) != H(Q, P)

As we will see later, both cross-entropy and KL divergence calculate the same quantity when they are used as loss functions for optimizing a classification predictive model. It is under this context that you might sometimes see that cross-entropy and KL divergence are the same.

## How to calculate Cross-Entropy

### Two discrete probability distributions

Consider a random variable with three discrete events as different colors: red, green, and blue. We may have two different probability distributions for this variable; for example:

...
# define distributions
events = ['red', 'green', 'blue']
p = [0.10, 0.40, 0.50]
q = [0.80, 0.15, 0.05]


We can plot a bar chart of these probabilities to compare them directly as probability histograms.

# plot of distributions
from matplotlib import pyplot
# define distributions
events = ['red', 'green', 'blue']
p = [0.10, 0.40, 0.50]
q = [0.80, 0.15, 0.05]
print('P=%.3f Q=%.3f' % (sum(p), sum(q)))
# plot first distribution
pyplot.subplot(2,1,1)
pyplot.bar(events, p)
# plot second distribution
pyplot.subplot(2,1,2)
pyplot.bar(events, q)
# show the plot
pyplot.show()


Running the example creates a histogram for each probability distribution, allowing the probabilities for each event to be directly compared. We can see that indeed the distributions are different. Histogram of two different probability distributions for the same random variable

### Calculate Cross-Entropy between two distributions

Next, we can develop a function to calculate the cross-entropy between the two distributions. We will use log base-2 to ensure the result has units in bits. We can then use this function to calculate the cross-entropy of P from Q, as well as the reverse, Q from P.

# example of calculating cross entropy
from math import log2

# calculate cross entropy
def cross_entropy(p, q):
return -sum([p[i]*log2(q[i]) for i in range(len(p))])

# define data
p = [0.10, 0.40, 0.50]
q = [0.80, 0.15, 0.05]
# calculate cross entropy H(P, Q)
ce_pq = cross_entropy(p, q)
print('H(P, Q): %.3f bits' % ce_pq)
# calculate cross entropy H(Q, P)
ce_qp = cross_entropy(q, p)
print('H(Q, P): %.3f bits' % ce_qp)


Running the example first calculates the cross-entropy of Q from P as just over 3 bits, then P from Q as just under 3 bits.

H(P, Q): 3.288 bits
H(Q, P): 2.906 bits


### Calculate the Cross-Entropy between a distribution and itself

If two probability distributions are the same, then the cross-entropy between them will be the entropy of the distribution. We can demonstrate this by calculating the cross-entropy of P vs P and Q vs Q.

# example of calculating cross entropy for identical distributions
from math import log2

# calculate cross entropy
def cross_entropy(p, q):
return -sum([p[i]*log2(q[i]) for i in range(len(p))])

# define data
p = [0.10, 0.40, 0.50]
q = [0.80, 0.15, 0.05]
# calculate cross entropy H(P, P)
ce_pp = cross_entropy(p, p)
print('H(P, P): %.3f bits' % ce_pp)
# calculate cross entropy H(Q, Q)
ce_qq = cross_entropy(q, q)
print('H(Q, Q): %.3f bits' % ce_qq)


Running the example first calculates the cross-entropy of Q vs Q which is calculated as the entropy for Q, and P vs P which is calculated as the entropy for P.

H(P, P): 1.361 bits
H(Q, Q): 0.884 bits


### Calculate Cross-Entropy using KL Divergence

We can also calculate the cross-entropy using the KL divergence. The cross-entropy calculated with KL divergence should be identical, and it may be interesting to calculate the KL divergence between the distributions as well to see the relative entropy or additional bits required instead of the total bits calculated by the cross-entropy.

First, we can define a function to calculate the KL divergence between the distributions using log base-2 to ensure the result is also in bits. Next, we can define a function to calculate the entropy for a given probability distribution. Finally, we can calculate the cross-entropy using the entropy() and kl_divergence() functions.

To keep the example simple, we can compare the cross-entropy for H(P, Q) to the KL divergence KL(P || Q) and the entropy H(P).

# example of calculating cross entropy with kl divergence
from math import log2

# calculate the kl divergence KL(P || Q)
def kl_divergence(p, q):
return sum(p[i] * log2(p[i]/q[i]) for i in range(len(p)))

# calculate entropy H(P)
def entropy(p):
return -sum([p[i] * log2(p[i]) for i in range(len(p))])

# calculate cross entropy H(P, Q)
def cross_entropy(p, q):
return entropy(p) + kl_divergence(p, q)

# define data
p = [0.10, 0.40, 0.50]
q = [0.80, 0.15, 0.05]
# calculate H(P)
en_p = entropy(p)
print('H(P): %.3f bits' % en_p)
# calculate kl divergence KL(P || Q)
kl_pq = kl_divergence(p, q)
print('KL(P || Q): %.3f bits' % kl_pq)
# calculate cross entropy H(P, Q)
ce_pq = cross_entropy(p, q)
print('H(P, Q): %.3f bits' % ce_pq)


Running the example, we can see that the cross-entropy score of 3.288 bits is comprised of the entropy of P 1.361 and the additional 1.927 bits calculated by the KL divergence. This is a useful example that clearly illustrates the relationship between all three calculations.

H(P): 1.361 bits
KL(P || Q): 1.927 bits
H(P, Q): 3.288 bits


## Cross-Entropy as a Loss Function

Cross-entropy is widely used as a loss function when optimizing classification models. Two examples that you may encounter include the logistic regression algorithm (a linear classification algorithm), and artificial neural networks that can be used for classification tasks. Using the cross-entropy error function instead of the sum-of-squares for a classification problem leads to faster training as well as improved generalization.

Classification problems are those that involve one or more input variables and the prediction of a class label. Classification tasks that have just two labels for the output variable are referred to as binary classification problems, whereas those problems with more than two labels are referred to as categorical or multi-class classification problems.

• Binary Classification: Task of predicting one of two class labels for a given example.
• Multi-Class Classification: Task of predicting one of more than two class labels for a given example.

We can see that the idea of cross-entropy may be useful for optimizing a classification model. Each example has a known class label with a probability of 1.0 and a probability of 0.0 for all other labels. A model can estimate the probability of an example belonging to each class label. Cross-entropy can then be used to calculate the difference between the two probability distributions.

As such, we can map the classification of one example onto the idea of a random variable with a probability distribution as follows:

• Random Variable: The example for which we require a predicted class label.
• Events: Each class label that could be predicted.

In classification tasks, we know the target probability distribution P for an input as the class label 0 or 1 interpreted as probabilities as “impossible” or “certain” respectively. These probabilities have no surprise at all, therefore they have no information content or zero entropy. Our model seeks to approximate the target probability distribution Q.

In the language of classification, these are the actual and the predicted probabilities, or y and yhat.

• Expected Probability (y): The known probability of each class label for an example in the dataset (P).
• Predicted Probability (yhat): The probability of each class label an example predicted by the model (Q).

We can, therefore, estimate the cross-entropy for a single prediction using the cross-entropy calculation described above; for example.

• H(P, Q) = – sum x in X P(x) * log(Q(x))

Where each x in X is a class label that could be assigned to the example, and P(x) will be 1 for the known label and 0 for all other labels. The cross-entropy for a single example in a binary classification task can be stated by unrolling the sum operation as follows:

• H(P, Q) = – (P(class0) * log(Q(class0)) + P(class1) * log(Q(class1)))

You may see this form of calculating cross-entropy cited in textbooks.

If there are just two class labels, the probability is modeled as the Bernoulli distribution for the positive class label. This means that the probability for class 1 is predicted by the model directly, and the probability for class 0 is given as one minus the predicted probability, for example:

• Predicted P(class0) = 1 – yhat
• Predicted P(class1) = yhat

When calculating cross-entropy for classification tasks, the base-e or natural logarithm is used. This means that the units are in nats, not bits. We are often interested in minimizing the cross-entropy for the model across the entire training dataset. This is calculated by calculating the average cross-entropy across all training examples.

### Calculate entropy for class labels

Recall that when two distributions are identical, the cross-entropy between them is equal to the entropy for the probability distribution. Class labels are encoded using the values 0 and 1 when preparing data for classification tasks. For example, if a classification problem has three classes, and an example has a label for the first class, then the probability distribution will be [1, 0, 0]. If an example has a label for the second class, it will have a probability distribution for the two events as [0, 1, 0]. This is called one-hot encoding.

This probability distribution has no information as the outcome is certain. We know the class. Therefore the entropy for this variable is zero. This is an important concept and we can demonstrate it with a worked example.

Pretend to have a classification problem with 3 classes, and we have one example that belongs to each class. We can represent each example as a discrete probability distribution with a 1.0 probability for the class to which the example belongs and a 0.0 probability for all other classes. We can calculate the entropy of the probability distribution for each “variable” across the “events“.

# entropy of examples from a classification task with 3 classes
from math import log2
from numpy import asarray

# calculate entropy
def entropy(p):
return -sum([p[i] * log2(p[i]) for i in range(len(p))])

# class 1
p = asarray([1,0,0]) + 1e-15
print(entropy(p))
# class 2
p = asarray([0,1,0]) + 1e-15
print(entropy(p))
# class 3
p = asarray([0,0,1]) + 1e-15
print(entropy(p))


Running the example calculates the entropy for each random variable. We can see that in each case, the entropy is 0.0 (actually a number very close to zero). Note that we had to add a very small value to the 0.0 values to avoid the log() from blowing up, as we cannot calculate the log of 0.0.

9.805612959471341e-14
9.805612959471341e-14
9.805612959471341e-14


As such, the entropy of a known class label is always 0.0. This means that the cross-entropy of two distributions (real and predicted) that have the same probability distribution for a class label, will also always be 0.0.

Recall that when evaluating a model using cross-entropy on a training dataset we average the cross-entropy across all examples in the dataset. Therefore, a cross-entropy of 0.0 when training a model indicates that the predicted class probabilities are identical to the probabilities in the training dataset, e.g. zero loss. We could just as easily minimize the KL divergence as a loss function instead of the cross-entropy. Recall that the KL divergence is the extra bits required to transmit one variable compared to another. It is the cross-entropy without the entropy of the class label, which we know would be zero anyway. As such, minimizing the KL divergence and the cross-entropy for a classification task is identical. So,

Minimizing this KL divergence corresponds exactly to minimizing the cross-entropy between the distributions.

In practice, a cross-entropy loss of 0.0 often indicates that the model has been overfitted on the training dataset, but that is another story.

### Calculate Cross-Entropy between class labels and probabilities

The use of cross-entropy for classification often gives different specific names based on the number of classes, mirroring the name of the classification task; for example:

• Binary Cross-Entropy: Cross-entropy as a loss function for a binary classification task.
• Categorical Cross-Entropy: Cross-entropy as a loss function for a multi-class classification task.

We can make the use of cross-entropy as a loss function concrete with a worked example. Consider a two-class classification task with the following 10 actual class labels (P) and predicted class labels (Q).

We can enumerate these probabilities and calculate the cross-entropy for each using the cross-entropy function developed in the previous section using log() (natural logarithm) instead of log2(). For each actual and predicted probability, we must convert the prediction into a distribution of probabilities across each event, in this case, the classes {0, 1} as 1 minus the probability for class 0 and probability for class 1. We can then calculate the cross-entropy and repeat the process for all examples. Finally, we can calculate the average cross-entropy across the dataset and report it as the cross-entropy loss for the model on the dataset.

# calculate cross entropy for classification problem
from math import log
from numpy import mean

# calculate cross entropy
def cross_entropy(p, q):
return -sum([p[i]*log(q[i]) for i in range(len(p))])

# define classification data
p = [1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0]
q = [0.8, 0.9, 0.9, 0.6, 0.8, 0.1, 0.4, 0.2, 0.1, 0.3]
# calculate cross entropy for each example
results = list()
for i in range(len(p)):
# create the distribution for each event {0, 1}
expected = [1.0 - p[i], p[i]]
predicted = [1.0 - q[i], q[i]]
# calculate cross entropy for the two events
ce = cross_entropy(expected, predicted)
print('>[y=%.1f, yhat=%.1f] ce: %.3f nats' % (p[i], q[i], ce))
results.append(ce)

# calculate the average cross entropy
mean_ce = mean(results)
print('Average Cross Entropy: %.3f nats' % mean_ce)


Running the example prints the actual and predicted probabilities for each example and the cross-entropy in nats. The final average cross-entropy loss across all examples is reported, in this case, as 0.247 nats.

>[y=1.0, yhat=0.8] ce: 0.223 nats
>[y=1.0, yhat=0.9] ce: 0.105 nats
>[y=1.0, yhat=0.9] ce: 0.105 nats
>[y=1.0, yhat=0.6] ce: 0.511 nats
>[y=1.0, yhat=0.8] ce: 0.223 nats
>[y=0.0, yhat=0.1] ce: 0.105 nats
>[y=0.0, yhat=0.4] ce: 0.511 nats
>[y=0.0, yhat=0.2] ce: 0.223 nats
>[y=0.0, yhat=0.1] ce: 0.105 nats
>[y=0.0, yhat=0.3] ce: 0.357 nats
Average Cross Entropy: 0.247 nats


This is how cross-entropy loss is calculated when optimizing a logistic regression model or a neural network model under a cross-entropy loss function.

### Calculate Cross-Entropy using Keras

We can confirm the same calculation by using the binary_crossentropy() function from the Keras deep learning API to calculate the cross-entropy loss for our small dataset.

Note: This example assumes that you have the Keras library installed (e.g. version 2.3 or higher) and configured with a backend library such as TensorFlow (version 2.0 or higher). If not, you can skip running this example.

# calculate cross entropy with keras
from numpy import asarray
from keras import backend
from keras.losses import binary_crossentropy
# prepare classification data
p = asarray([1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0])
q = asarray([0.8, 0.9, 0.9, 0.6, 0.8, 0.1, 0.4, 0.2, 0.1, 0.3])
# convert to keras variables
y_true = backend.variable(p)
y_pred = backend.variable(q)
# calculate the average cross-entropy
mean_ce = backend.eval(binary_crossentropy(y_true, y_pred))
print('Average Cross Entropy: %.3f nats' % mean_ce)


Running the example, we can see that the same average cross-entropy loss of 0.247 nats is reported. This confirms the correct manual calculation of cross-entropy.

Average Cross Entropy: 0.247 nats


### Intuition for Cross-Entropy on predicted probabilities

We can further develop the intuition for cross-entropy for predicted class probabilities. For example, given that an average cross-entropy loss of 0.0 is a perfect model, what do average cross-entropy values greater than zero mean exactly?

We can explore this question in a binary classification problem where the class labels as 0 and 1. This is a discrete probability distribution with two events and a certain probability for one event and an impossible probability for the other event. We can then calculate the cross entropy for different “predicted” probability distributions transitioning from a perfect match of the target distribution to the exact opposite probability distribution. We would expect that as the predicted probability distribution diverges further from the target distribution, the cross-entropy calculated will increase.

The example below implements this and plots the cross-entropy result for the predicted probability distribution compared to the target of [0, 1] for two events as we would see for the cross-entropy in a binary classification task.

# cross-entropy for predicted probability distribution vs label
from math import log
from matplotlib import pyplot

# calculate cross-entropy
def cross_entropy(p, q, ets=1e-15):
return -sum([p[i]*log(q[i]+ets) for i in range(len(p))])

# define the target distribution for two events
target = [0.0, 1.0]
# define probabilities for the first event
probs = [1.0, 0.9, 0.8, 0.7, 0.6, 0.5, 0.4, 0.3, 0.2, 0.1, 0.0]
# create probability distributions for the two events
dists = [[1.0 - p, p] for p in probs]
# calculate cross-entropy for each distribution
ents = [cross_entropy(target, d) for d in dists]
# plot probability distribution vs cross-entropy
pyplot.plot([1-p for p in probs], ents, marker='.')
pyplot.title('Probability Distribution vs Cross-Entropy')
pyplot.xticks([1-p for p in probs], ['[%.1f,%.1f]'%(d,d) for d in dists], rotation=70)
pyplot.xlabel('Probability Distribution')
pyplot.ylabel('Cross-Entropy (nats)')
pyplot.show()


Running the example calculates the cross-entropy score for each probability distribution and then plots the results as a line plot. We can see that as expected, cross-entropy starts at 0.0 (far left point) when the predicted probability distribution matches the target distribution, then steadily increases as the predicted probability distribution diverges. We can also see a dramatic leap in cross-entropy when the predicted probability distribution is the exact opposite of the target distribution, that is, [1, 0] compared to the target of [0, 1]. Probability distribution vs Cross-Entropy for a binary classification task

We are not going to have a model that predicts the exact opposite probability distribution for all cases on a binary classification task. As such, we can remove this case and re-calculate the plot. The updated version of the code is listed below.

# cross-entropy for predicted probability distribution vs label
from math import log
from matplotlib import pyplot

# calculate cross-entropy
def cross_entropy(p, q, ets=1e-15):
return -sum([p[i]*log(q[i]+ets) for i in range(len(p))])

# define the target distribution for two events
target = [0.0, 1.0]
# define probabilities for the first event
probs = [1.0, 0.9, 0.8, 0.7, 0.6, 0.5, 0.4, 0.3, 0.2, 0.1]
# create probability distributions for the two events
dists = [[1.0 - p, p] for p in probs]
# calculate cross-entropy for each distribution
ents = [cross_entropy(target, d) for d in dists]
# plot probability distribution vs cross-entropy
pyplot.plot([1-p for p in probs], ents, marker='.')
pyplot.title('Probability Distribution vs Cross-Entropy')
pyplot.xticks([1-p for p in probs], ['[%.1f,%.1f]'%(d,d) for d in dists], rotation=70)
pyplot.xlabel('Probability Distribution')
pyplot.ylabel('Cross-Entropy (nats)')
pyplot.show()


Running the example gives a much better idea of the relationship between the divergence in probability distribution and the calculated cross-entropy. We can see a super-linear relationship where the more the predicted probability distribution diverges from the target, the larger the increase in cross-entropy. Probability distribution vs Cross-Entropy for a binary classification task with extreme case removed

A plot like this can be used as a guide for interpreting the average cross-entropy reported for a model for a binary classification dataset. For example, you can use these cross-entropy values to interpret the mean cross-entropy reported by Keras for a neural network model on a binary classification task, or a binary classification model in scikit-learn evaluated using the log loss metric. You can use it to answer the general question:

What is a good cross-entropy score?

If you are working in nats (and you usually are) and you are getting mean cross-entropy less than 0.2, you are off to a good start, and less than 0.1 or 0.05 is even better. On the other hand, if you are getting a mean cross-entropy greater than 0.2 or 0.3 you can probably improve, and if you are getting a mean cross-entropy greater than 1.0, then something is going on and you’re making poor probability predictions on many examples in your dataset.

We can summarise these intuitions for the mean cross-entropy as follows:

• Cross-Entropy = 0.00: Perfect probabilities.
• Cross-Entropy < 0.02: Great probabilities.
• Cross-Entropy < 0.05: On the right track.
• Cross-Entropy < 0.20: Fine.
• Cross-Entropy > 0.30: Not great.
• Cross-Entropy > 1.00: Terrible.
• Cross-Entropy > 2.00 Something is broken.

This listing will provide a useful guide when interpreting a cross-entropy (log loss) from your logistic regression model, or your artificial neural network model. You can also calculate separate mean cross-entropy scores per-class and help tease out on which classes you’re model has good probabilities, and which it might be messing up.

## Cross-Entropy versus Log Loss

Cross-Entropy is not Log Loss, but they calculate the same quantity when used as loss functions for classification problems.

### Log Loss is the Negative Log Likelihood

Logistic loss refers to the loss function commonly used to optimize a logistic regression model. It may also be referred to as logarithmic loss (which is confusing) or simply log loss. Many models are optimized under a probabilistic framework called the maximum likelihood estimation, or MLE, which involves finding a set of parameters that best explain the observed data.

This involves selecting a likelihood function that defines how likely a set of observations (data) are given model parameters. When a log-likelihood function is used (which is common), it is often referred to as optimizing the log-likelihood for the model. Because it is more common to minimize a function than to maximize it in practice, the log-likelihood function is inverted by adding a negative sign to the front. This transforms it into a Negative Log Likelihood function or NLL for short.

In deriving the log likelihood function under a framework of maximum likelihood estimation for Bernoulli probability distribution functions (two classes), the calculation comes out to be:

• negative log-likelihood(P, Q) = -(P(class0) * log(Q(class0)) + P(class1) * log(Q(class1)))

This quantity can be averaged over all training examples by calculating the average of the log of the likelihood function.

Negative log-likelihood for binary classification problems is often shortened to simply “log loss” as the loss function derived for logistic regression.

• log loss = negative log-likelihood, under a Bernoulli probability distribution

We can see that the negative log-likelihood is the same calculation as is used for the cross-entropy for Bernoulli probability distribution functions (two events or classes). In fact, the negative log-likelihood for Multinoulli distributions (multi-class classification) also matches the calculation for cross-entropy.

### Log Loss and Cross Entropy calculate the same thing

For classification problems, “log loss“, “cross-entropy” and “negative log-likelihood” are used interchangeably. More generally, the terms “cross-entropy” and “negative log-likelihood” are used interchangeably in the context of loss functions for classification models. Therefore, calculating log loss will give the same quantity as calculating the cross-entropy for Bernoulli probability distribution. We can confirm this by calculating the log loss using the log_loss() function from the scikit-learn API. Calculating the average log loss on the same set of actual and predicted probabilities from the previous section should give the same result as calculating the average cross-entropy.

# calculate log loss for classification problem with scikit-learn
from sklearn.metrics import log_loss
from numpy import asarray
# define classification data
p = [1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0]
q = [0.8, 0.9, 0.9, 0.6, 0.8, 0.1, 0.4, 0.2, 0.1, 0.3]
# define data as expected, e.g. probability for each event {0, 1}
y_true = asarray([[1-v, v] for v in p])
y_pred = asarray([[1-v, v] for v in q])
# calculate the average log loss
ll = log_loss(y_true, y_pred)
print('Average Log Loss: %.3f' % ll)


Running the example gives the expected result of 0.247 log loss, which matches 0.247 nats when calculated using the average cross-entropy.

Average Log Loss: 0.247


This does not mean that log loss calculates cross-entropy or cross-entropy calculates log loss. Instead, they are different quantities, arrived at from different fields of study, that under the conditions of calculating a loss function for a classification task, result in an equivalent calculation and result. Specifically, a cross-entropy loss function is equivalent to a maximum likelihood function under a Bernoulli or Multinoulli probability distribution. This demonstrates a connection between the study of maximum likelihood estimation and information theory for discrete probability distributions.

It is not limited to discrete probability distributions, and this fact is surprising to many practitioners that hear it for the first time. Specifically, a linear regression optimized under the maximum likelihood estimation framework assumes a Gaussian continuous probability distribution for the target variable and involves minimizing the mean squared error function. This is equivalent to the cross-entropy for a random variable with a Gaussian probability distribution.

Any loss consisting of a negative log-likelihood is a cross-entropy between the empirical distribution defined by the training set and the probability distribution defined by model. For example, mean squared error is the cross-entropy between the empirical distribution and a Gaussian model.

— Page 132, Deep Learning, 2016.

This is a little mind-blowing, and comes from the field of differential entropy for continuous random variables. It means that if you calculate the mean squared error between two Gaussian random variables that cover the same events (have the same mean and standard deviation), then you are calculating the cross-entropy between the variables. It also means that if you are using mean squared error loss to optimize your neural network model for a regression problem, you are in effect using a cross entropy loss.

Summary:

Entropy is the number of bits required to transmit a randomly selected event from a probability distribution. A skewed distribution has low entropy, whereas a distribution where events have equal probability has a larger entropy. A skewed probability distribution has less “surprise” and in turn a low entropy because likely events dominate. Balanced distributions are more surprising and turn have higher entropy because events are equally likely.

Entropy H(x) can be calculated for a random variable with a set of x in X discrete states discrete states and their probability P(x) as follows: Cross-entropy builds upon the idea of entropy from information theory and calculates the number of bits required to represent or transmit an average event from one distribution compared to another distribution.

Cross-entropy can be calculated using the probabilities of the events from P and Q, as follows: KL divergence measures a very similar quantity to cross-entropy. It measures the average number of extra bits required to represent a message with Q instead of P, not the total number of bits. K L divergence can be calculated as the negative sum of the probability of each event in P multiples by the log of the probability of the event in Q over the probability of the event in P. Typically, log base-2 so that the result is measured in bits. We compare the impact of KL and Cross Entropy Loss on the Convnets.

# KL Divergence Loss

import tensorflow as tf
import tensorflow.keras as keras
from tensorflow.keras.datasets import cifar10
from tensorflow.keras.models import Sequential
from tensorflow.keras.layers import Dense, Dropout, Flatten
from tensorflow.keras.layers import Conv2D, MaxPooling2D

batch_size                    = 250
no_epochs                     = 25
no_classes                    = 10

(input_train, target_train), (input_test, target_test) = cifar10.load_data()
input_train = input_train.astype('float32')
input_test = input_test.astype('float32')
input_train = input_train / 255
input_test = input_test / 255
target_train = keras.utils.to_categorical(target_train, no_classes)
target_test = keras.utils.to_categorical(target_test, no_classes)

model = Sequential()

model.compile(loss=keras.losses.kullback_leibler_divergence,
metrics=['accuracy'])

history=model.fit(input_train, target_train,
batch_size=batch_size,
epochs=no_epochs,
validation_split=0.2
)

# Cross Entropy Loss

import tensorflow as tf
import tensorflow.keras as keras
from tensorflow.keras.datasets import cifar10
from tensorflow.keras.models import Sequential
from tensorflow.keras.layers import Dense, Dropout, Flatten
from tensorflow.keras.layers import Conv2D, MaxPooling2D

batch_size                    = 250
no_epochs                     = 25
no_classes                    = 10

(input_train, target_train), (input_test, target_test) = cifar10.load_data()
input_train = input_train.astype('float32')
input_test = input_test.astype('float32')
input_train = input_train / 255
input_test = input_test / 255
target_train = keras.utils.to_categorical(target_train, no_classes)
target_test = keras.utils.to_categorical(target_test, no_classes)

model = Sequential()

model.compile(loss='categorical_crossentropy',
metrics=['accuracy'])
history=model.fit(input_train, target_train,
batch_size=batch_size,
epochs=no_epochs,
validation_split=0.2
)


Visually, we do not see a difference in the result for both cases.

Resources:

https://leimao.github.io/blog/Cross-Entropy-KL-Divergence-MLE/

https://towardsdatascience.com/entropy-cross-entropy-and-kl-divergence-explained-b09cdae917a

https://towardsdatascience.com/cross-entropy-for-classification-d98e7f974451 ##### Amir Masoud Sefidian
Machine Learning Engineer